Typical triad: abdominal pain (out of proportion to clinical signs), bowel emptying and source of embolism e.g. AF.
Note - triad is only present in approximately 80% of cases, there may be a window of opportunity when pain is decreased.
Abdominal pain, history of atherosclerotic disease. High index of suspicion needed. Dehydration, low cardiac output and hypercoagulable states may be precipitating factors. Patient may have had chronic mesenteric ischaemia.
Non-specific presentation – always consider as a differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen.
NON-OCCLUSIVE (LOW FLOW STATES):
Usually secondary to severe systemic illness: most commonly hypoperfusion secondary to severe cardiac failure or acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, sepsis, massive burn injury, post renal replacement therapy.